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Comparative characteristics of fuel

We often have to answer the question about the cost of heating with pellets. On the Internet you can find a lot of articles with the economic calculations the cost of heating with pellets, but all these were taken from foreign sources, so the calculation is made there under a specific country with its fuel prices. This article is an example of the cost of heating a building area of 600 square meters.

To determine the cost of heating is necessary to calculate how much heat energy consumption for space of one heating season.

Today, the room has good heat insulation; heat loss coefficient in them is less than 70 W / m² per hour. Consumption for the year is as follows:

Q = 600m2 * 70W/m2 *24 hour* 192 * 0,7 = 135 475 kW*hour (135,5 MW*hour),

where 192 – is the number of days during the heating season;

0.7 - the coefficient of working the boiler.

To determine the amount of fuel consumed during the heating season will carry out the calculation on the basis of data on the heat of combustion of the fuel in Table 1.

Table 1. The heat of combustion some kind of fuels
Kind of fuel
Wood pelletsWood briquettesFirewood (birch)Diesel fuelCoalPrivate coalNatural gas
Combustion heat kW/kg
2,833 (1278 kW/m3)
11,803 (10,15 kW/l.)
8,000 kW/m3

Fuel consumption for the heating season, according to the calculations is shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Fuel consumption for the heating season

Kind of fuel

Количество топлива

Wood pellets

27 t

Wood briquettes

29 t


106 m3

Diesel fuel

13347 l


22 t

Private coal

61 t

Natural gas

16934 m3.

Electric power

135 475 kW*hour

The price of fuel and the cost of heating during the heating season is presented in Table 3.

Табл.3 Price of fuel and the cost of heating .
Kind of fuel

Price, uah

Costs, uah

Wood pellets

900 uah/t

 24 300

Wood briquettes

1050 uah/t

 30 450

Firewood (mixed)

100 uah/m3

 10 600

Diesel fuel

6,5 uah/l

 86 757


1160 uah

 25 624

Private coal

450 uah

 27 450

Natural gas for the population. the consumption of more than 12,000 cubic meters per year

1,79 uah/m3м.куб.

 30 313

Natural gas for legal persons and industries

2631,07 uah for1000 m3

 44 554

Electricity for the population

0,25 uah/kW*hour

 33 869

Electricity for legal persons and industry (2 voltage class)

0,73 uah/kW*hour

 98 639

Look at the analysis of the cost of heating and boiler maintenance.

1. From the calculation shows that the cheapest fuel is firewood (but - for automated boilers with automatic combustion wood waste requires grinding, which entails additional costs). The next place - coal, but in hot periods, as experience shows, will have to "look for jobs as a fireman", and at 40% ash, slag, etc. there is a problem (removal, transport and storage of ash and slag). Environmental pollution in the form of CO to 50 times higher than that of pellets.

2. The next step is the cost of natural gas with the rate for the population, in terms of comfort - you can say "live your life", once you have set up automatic and more to his touch. But if you dig deeper, it turns out not so smooth. In the winter of 2008-2009 in the negotiations with Russia, the pressure in many gas pipelines were reduced, resulting in many boilers decayed and could not function normally. Environmental pollution - CO is 15 times higher than that of pellets.

3. Next on the face value of briquettes from sawdust, but there is the same problem that all solid fuel boilers with manual loading, you need to "work as a fireman."

4. Heating with electric boiler, very good, and the cost is acceptable, but only if you have: a stable good line, power outages do not happen, there is no limit on power consumption, which today in cottage towns are rare. The electricity tariff for households today UAH 0.25 / kWh, and what will happen next year, after 3 years? Some say that the electricity will not go up! It will be more expensive gas - electricity will go up because today is about 50% of the electricity produced in Ukraine TPP, and they mostly work on gas.

5. Pellets - in terms of comfort level with gas boiler, once you have set up automatic boiler and "live your life", but sometimes you need to look for residual bunker fuel in the boiler and pour it on time, or bring up. There is over capacity hoppers of different types, there are hoppers in which the pellets are bombarded with the whole year, half of the season, a month, a week or a few days, which basically allows you to get the comfort level at the gas boiler. Pellets are produced in Ukraine and today are mainly exported to Europe. In Europe, the pellets are in the leading position in the market for domestic and industrial consumption due to the following factors:

- A relatively low cost;

- Comfort of pellet boiler operation;

- Effective energy saving boiler;

- Pellets - an environmentally clean and renewable fuels;

- Ease of transport and loading of storage (tank);

- Saving on storage costs - the amount of storage for storing pellets in 7 times less in comparison with the warehouse of fire wood.

An example of some areas of heating:

1. Consumption of space area 1000 m2 per year is 225,792 kW/h. :

Q = 1000 m2 * 70W/m2 *24 hour* 192 * 0,7 = 225 792kW*hour (225, 79 MW*hour), 

where 192 - the number of days during the heating season;

0.7 - the coefficient of working  boiler.


2. The amount of fuel, namely wood pellets required for heating an area of 1,000 m2 for the year is 45.5 tons:

225 792kW * hour / 4,963 kW/ kg = 45 495 kg = 45.5 m

Where 4,963 - calorific value, kW / kg

3. The cost of wood pellets, required for heating an area of 1,000 m2 for the year is 40,950 uah.

45.5 m * 900 uah. / t = 40,950 Uah.

The approximate calculation of the cost manufacture of fuel briquettes and pellets

Humidity of raw material
Line productivity
Tons per shift (working hours)
Number of shifts per day
Working days in month
Coeff. use of equipment(recom.=0.9)
Price of raw material,uah/t. (medium)
The required volume of wet material to burn, tons/month
The required amount of wet raw materials for the technology, tons/month
Total wet raw materials for production, tons/month
Brigade of pelleting,pers./s
Salary in hour/uah
Piecework pay,uah/ton
Installed capacity (IC) of line,kW/h
Cost of 1 kW/hour,uah.
Electricity consumption for all production, kW/h
Volume of production per month, ton.
Total cost of electricity (production), uah/ month
Energy intensity of production, kh/ton
The cost of wear parts chooseuah/t
Foundation salary staff of lines, uah/month.
The tax rate on FSS
Direct production costs per month uah, for everything.
Production costs uah/ton
Foundation non-productive salary uah for all t/h
Salary of staff and all supporting personnel,uah.
Transportation costsuah.
Other costsuah.
Total costs: uah.
Total cost production of the company uah/ton.
Costs of pellet line,uah.
Costs of technique,uah.
Costs of supervision and commissioning,uah.
Costs of preparation to work,uah.
Costs of capital investments
1 euro-uah.
Prime cost euro/ton
Prime cost uah/ton
Price of implementation,euro
Proceeds in month, euro
Proceeds in month, uah.
Income balance, uah.
Income balance, euro
The payback period on the balance sheet profit, month
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